Den indre samtalen

Forstår du deg selv? Forstår du din adferd? Vet du hvorfor du oppfatter, sanser, tenker, resonnerer, velger, husker, tolker, lærer og kommuniserer som du gjør?

Vanskelige spørsmål, selvfølgelig. Psykologi er studiet av atferd, og disse kognitive temaene er kompliserte nok for psykologer. La oss likevel dykke ned i materien å prøve og få et lite innblikk.

Tidlig på 1900-tallet vokste det frem en læringsteori i psykologien kalt behaviorisme. Utgangspunktet for teorien var at all adferd kunne forklares med sammenhengen mellom synlig påvirkning og synlig reaksjon. Man antok at mennesker søker etter fordeler og unngår ulemper, og derfor styres av belønning og straff. Behaviorismens forklaring på hvorfor du gjør som du gjør, kan derfor relateres til din ytre motivasjon om å berike deg selv, eventuelt å unngå ubehag.

I mellomkrigstiden ble behaviorismens tanker videreutviklet. Russiske Lev Vygotskij introduserte det sosiokulturelle læringssyn, der betydningen av sosiale rammer ble sidestilt med stimulus og respons. Dermed gikk man fra å se på mennesket som et primitivt individ, til å være et kulturelt vesen. Vygotskij mente at læringen skjer i et sosialt samspill, og at menneskets levekår påvirker hvordan det tenker. Gjennom bruk av fysiske og intellektuelle verktøy, såkalte medierende artefakter, lærer mennesket å absorbere virkeligheten og forbedre levekårene.

Et eksempel på et fysisk artefakt er internettet, der barn og unge øver seg på en avansert mediekultur. Andre eksempler er leker, spill, klær, sminke, mobiltelefon og kropp. Intellektuelle artefakter kan for eksempel være læreplaner,symboler og språket.
I det sosiokulturelle læringssynet er språket det viktigste verktøyet, der evnen til å integrere kultur og tilegne seg kunnskap øker i takt med språkforståelsen. I følge Vygotskij starter språkutviklingen allerede som spedbarn. Gjennom øyekontakt og mimikk oppnås sosialt samspill, dog på et enkelt nivå. Etter hvert utvikler barna noe som kalles egosentrisk tale, eller “sandkassespråk”, hvor barna prater med seg selv om det de gjør. Samtalene med seg selv utvikles videre og blir etter hvert til indre samtaler. Disse indre samtalene danner grunnlaget for menneskets tanker og mentale adferd, det være seg selvrefleksjon og bevissthet.

Tilbake til spørsmålene i innledningen. Forstår du deg selv? Forstår du din adferd?
Dersom vi skal tro på det sosiokulturelle læringssynet, er du langt på vei et produkt av din omliggende kultur og din evne til å integrere den. Du oppfatter, sanser, tenker, resonnerer, velger, husker, tolker, lærer og kommuniserer slik du gjør, fordi du har og bruker kulturelle verktøy. Eksempelvis språket ditt.

Den psykologiske tilnærmingen til vår adferd er selvsagt mer komplisert enn det som fremkommer her. Likevel kan disse knaggene av kunnskap inspirere til økt bevissthet rundt hvem vi er, og ikke minst hvem vi omgås. Kulturen vi er del av.

Et godt valg i hverdagen er å lytte til din indre samtale. Er du den du vil være?

 


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